Guide to Business Contracts: Types of Contracts in Business Law in India

Business Contracts

Introduction of Business Contract

A wide range of duties related to an organization’s operations are covered by business law. When beginning a business, recruiting staff, expanding a business, or shutting down its doors, business owners might benefit from having a basic understanding of business law. It alludes to the body of laws, rules, and precedents that control all business dealings between people, groups, partnerships, and other forms of enterprises to obtain a competitive advantage.

What is a Business Contract?

Business Contract

Business contracts are official written documents that represent the agreements and agreements made between firms as they do their daily business. They are typically lawful bidding and any party that violates the terms or commitments outlined in the contract may be held legally liable. The contracts also outline expectations, how disagreements will be resolved throughout implementation, and potential penalties for parties that violate the stated terms. Additionally, the contracts represent or specify the commitments made by people and enterprises, as well as how their interactions will be carried out.

Business contracts are necessary and serve as a tool to help businesses manage and protect their resources.

A written agreement between two parties that both will be legally obligated to carry out specific responsibilities or refrain from performing specific tasks as agreed upon between them is known as a business contract. This phrase is frequently used to refer to any sort of transaction, including sales, services, the transfer of property ownership, or a combination of several transaction types. There could be more than two parties participating in a contract. The majority of the time, only those who participate in a contract have obligations and rights that result from it.

Types of Contracts in business law

The sorts of contracts covered by company law include the following:

Based on the formation mode

Express Contracts

A two-party engagement in which they discuss the details of the agreement and the promises made results in an express contract. This business contract does not have to be formal or in writing. It calls on the parties to express their intentions in the agreement in detail. Contracts typically result from the express agreement.

Implied contracts

In an implied contract, one or more parties have a contractual duty based on the other’s acts, behavior, or circumstances. This kind of agreement has the same legal weight as an express business contract, which is a voluntary agreement made by two or more parties via paper or verbally. Contrarily, implied contracts are assumed to exist but do not have to be made explicit orally or through writing.


A quasi-contract, as the term suggests, is a retroactive agreement between people who had no prior responsibilities to one another. A judge will impose it to make things right when one party benefits at the expense of another.


Because they are frequently signed without the parties having to meet, contracts achieved through e-commerce are referred to as electronic contracts. They are typically electronic contracts for business.

Besides, there are also void, valid, voidable, unenforceable, and Illegal Contracts based on validity.

Different Types of Contracts Based on Performance:

Executed Contracts

Executed contracts are signed agreements that create legal obligations for the parties. Both parties undertake to uphold the legal duties stipulated in the contract once it has been fully signed. An agreement struck between two or more parties with signatures may be referred to as a contract that has been executed, as well as a contract that has been both agreed to and executed. The definition given is appropriate in both situations and can be utilized per the circumstances.

Executory Contract

In an executory contract, neither party has completed its end of the bargain. The promise made in such a contract is given a future reward. For instance, a suggestion to sell B-specific specific shares. B decides to accept the offer. In the present scenario, neither A nor B have yet delivered the shares or made the payment.

Unilateral Contracts

There is only one party to a unilateral contract. Although just one person often makes a promise for themselves, the contract is open and free to be carried out by anyone who desires or can do so.

Bilateral Contracts

A bilateral contract is a written pact between two parties in which each promises to keep their share of the transaction. In bilateral contracts, the offeror and the offeree normally have equal responsibilities or consideration.


One party will form a business contract or pledge for a particular or broad group of people under a unilateral agreement. Contrarily, bilateral contracts demand that at least one of two parties negotiate, concur, and uphold a promise.

  • Only the offeror is required to keep their end of the bargain in Unilateral whereas the mutual commitment of both parties to uphold their end of the bargain forms the basis of the Business contract in Bilateral.
  • Anyone who is willing to participate is presented with open requests and optional offers under a unilateral contract. In a bilateral contract, one party specifically makes an offer to the other party.
  • The person making the unilateral offer must be specific about how long it will be good. Both sides agree to a predetermined timetable for completing the criteria and making payments by the due date in bilateral contracts.
  • It is challenging to communicate via a unilateral contract because the offeree is not known or fixed. There are therefore more opportunities for confusion. Contrarily, bilateral agreements are more lucid because they clearly state each party’s obligations.
Unilateral Contracts:

In this scenario, only one partner is required to keep their word. Only after one party has kept their commitment will a contract be regarded as legitimate.  Insurance policy contracts are one type of unilateral contract that is typically only partially unilateral. One contractual responsibility only exists for the offeror under a unilateral contract. Unilateral contracts impose obligations on the offeror.

The term “unilateral contract” refers to agreements when the offeror agrees to pay for services that are available to and potentially optional for other parties. According to contract law, a unilateral contract is enforceable. However, in most cases, legal problems do not surface until the offeree claims that they are qualified for compensation based on completing specific tasks. However, when the offerer fails to pay the agreed-upon sum, legal problems frequently result. If it can be demonstrated that the offeree is entitled to payment for specific activities, then a breach of contract must be assessed based on the terms of the contract.

Bilateral Contracts:

A bilateral contract is a written pact between two parties in which each promises to keep their share of the transaction. Although this isn’t always the case, in bilateral contracts, the offeror and the offeree normally have equal responsibilities or consideration. In some circumstances, such as multilateral trade negotiations, a bilateral contract may be referred to as a side agreement. As a result, both parties are involved in the general negotiations but may also decide that a different contract that addresses the particular interests they share in common has to be negotiated. Leases, sales agreements, and employment contracts are a few examples of bilateral contracts.

Bilateral agreements are typically legally binding. The parties are both obligees (those bound by a promise based on the other party’s promise) and obligors (those who are bound to each other) by their promises. Contracts are signed to make sure they are understandable and enforceable in court. A sales agreement may be a part of bilateral contracts, as was already noted. In this scenario, the buyer may agree to pay the seller a particular money in exchange for the automobile title, and in return for the selling amount, the seller provides the title to the vehicle. If one side doesn’t carry out their end of the bargain, there has been a breach of the contract.


For a business contract to be legally enforceable, it must also fulfill some standards in addition to being explicit and specific. Legally binding contracts can be enforced. A legally binding contract may be cited in court to support a ruling made addressing a contentious issue. A contract cannot be legally enforceable in the absence of a few key elements. Unless there is a specific reason for it, a contract does not need to be in writing.

What are Business Contract Laws and their types?

A contract is an agreement between two parties that places a duty of performance on one of them. They fall into the categories of unilateral, bilateral, unconscionable, adhesion, aleatory, and option types on a large scale.

What are the four types of Business Contracts?

Unilateral, Bilateral, Executory, and Executed based on performance.

What are the nine types of Business Contracts?

Executed, Unilateral, Bilateral, Quasi, Express, Valid, Void, Adhesion, and Option Contracts.

What are the various types of Business Contracts?

❖    Based on performance:
1. Executed
2. Executory
3. Bilateral
4. Unilateral
❖    Based on Validity:
1. Valid
2. Void
3. Voidable
4. Illegal
5. Unenforceable
❖    Based on the mode of Formation
1.    Quasi
2.    E-Contracts
3.    Express
4.    Implied

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